Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#8)


The Thought

Servus quaerit cur in siccatorio inesses?

Ut signo vestes, efficientius est.


The Meaning

My servant asks why were you in the dryer?

When I mark clothes, it is more efficient.


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Sērvūs / qu(āē)rīt / cūr īn / sīccā/tōrĭo*-ĭ/nēssēs?
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ )

Ūt sīg/nō vēs/tēs, || ēffĭcĭ/ēntĭŭs / ēst.
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )

* A note on scansion: if a word ends in a vowel, am, em, or um, AND the next word begins with a vowel (or an h), then the ending vowel (or am, em, um) of the first word is dropped completely (beat value and all) and the two words are joined. This is known as elision.


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Servus = servus (servus, -i), noun, 2nd declension, singular, masculine, nominative, meaning = male servant.

quaerit = quaero (quaero, quaerere, quaesivi or quaesii, quaesitum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = he (servus) asks.

cur = interrogative, indeclinable, meaning = why.

in = preposition, indeclinable, modifies siccatorio, meaning = in.

siccatorio = siccatorium (siccatorium, -ii), noun, 2nd declension, singular, neuter, ablative, meaning = drying room (dryer).

inesses = insum (insum, inesse, infui, infuturum), verb, irregular, 2nd person, singular, imperfect, active only, subjubctive, meaning = you were in. (The construction “Servus quaerit cur…,” introduces and indirect question, “My servant asks why…” Verbs in indirect questions are subjunctive in mood.)

Ut = conjunction (temporal), indeclinable, meaning = when, as (just as, at the same time as).

signo = signo (signo, -are, -avi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 1st person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = I mark, sign

vestes = vestis (vestis, -is), noun, 3rd declension, plural, feminine, accusative, meaning = clothes.

efficientius = efficientior (efficientior, -ius), adjective (comparative adjective derived from the present participle “efficiens” of the verb efficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum), singular, neuter, nominative, modifies the impersonal “it” of the verb est, meaning = more efficient.

est = sum (sum, esse, fui, futurum), verb, irregular, 3rd person, singular, present, active only, indicative, meaning = it (impersonal) is.


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#7)


The Thought

Duplos annos regnavisset Roma quidem si

nutricati essent tigridibus gemini.


The Meaning

Rome would have indeed ruled twice the years if

the twins were reared by tigers.


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Dūplōs / ānnōs / rēgnā/vīssēt / Rōmă quĭ/dēm sī
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ )

nūtrī/cāti*-ēs/sēnt || tīgrĭdĭ/būs gĕmĭ/nī.
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )

* A note on scansion: if a word ends in a vowel, am, em, or um, AND the next word begins with a vowel (or an h), then the ending vowel (or am, em, um) of the first word is dropped completely (beat value and all) and the two words are joined. This is known as elision.


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

duplos = duplus (duplus, -a, -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, plural, masculine, accusative, modifies annos, meaning = twice, twice as much

annos = annus (annus, -i), noun, 2nd declension, plural, masculine, accusative, meaning = years

regnavisset = regno (regno, -are, -avi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 3rd person, singular, pluperfect, active, subjunctive, meaning = he/she/it would have ruled.

Roma = Roma (Roma, -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, nominative, meaning = Rome.

quidem = adverb, indeclinable, modifies regnavisset, meaning = indeed.

si = conjunction, indeclinable, meaning = if – this little word often signifies, as it does here, a grammatical construction known as a conditional statement. The particular conditional in this poem is a Past Contrary to Fact conditional: if X would have happened (but didn’t), then Y would have happened (but didn’t). In the Past Contrary to Fact conditional, the verb in each clause is pluperfect in tense and subjunctive in mood.

nutricati = nutricatus (nutricatus, -a, -um), adjective (past participle of nutrico, -are, -avi, -atum), 1st & 2nd declension, plural, masculine, nominative, meaning = nursed, weaned, reared, raised. *1st part of the compound verb nutricati essent.

essent = sum (sum, esse, fui, futurum), verb, irregular, 3rd person, plural, pluperfect, active only, subjunctive, meaning = they would have been. *2nd part of the compound verb nutricati essent.

nutricati essent = nutrico (nutrico, -are, -avi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 3rd person, plural, pluperfect, passive, subjunctive, meaning = they would have been nursed, weaned, reared, raised.

tigridibus = tigris (tigris, -idis), noun, 3rd declension, plural, masculine, ablative, meaning = by (means of) tigers

gemini = gemini (gemini, -orum), noun, 2nd declension, plural only, masculine, nominative, meaning = twins (in this particular case, Rome’s founders, twins who were raised by a she-wolf, Romulus and Remus).


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#6)


The Thought

Scaevola nominor, et reliquis pedibus tribus ipsis

contra hostes Romae nunc etiam supero.

Scaevola Cattus Mucius, et pedibus reliquis his

omnia pelliciam pectora vestra mihi.


The Meaning

Scaevola I am named, and with these very three remaining feet

against the enemies of Rome even now I overcome.

Scaevola Cattus Mucius, and with these remaining feet

I will win over to me all of your hearts.


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Sc(āē)vŏlă / nōmĭnŏr, / ēt rĕlĭ/quīs pĕdĭ/būs trĭbŭs / īpsīs
( ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ )

cōntra*-hōs/tēs Rō/m(āē) || nūnc ĕtĭ/ām sŭpĕ/rō.
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )

Sc(āē)vŏlă / Cāttūs / Mūcĭŭs, / ēt pĕdĭ/būs rĕlĭ/quīs hīs
( ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ )

ōmnĭă / pēllĭcĭ/ām || pēctŏră / vēstră mĭ/hī.
( ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )

* A note on scansion: if a word ends in a vowel, am, em, or um, AND the next word begins with a vowel (or an h), then the ending vowel (or am, em, um) of the first word is dropped completely (beat value and all) and the two words are joined. This is known as elision.


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Scaevola = Scaevola (Scaevola, -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, masculine, nominative, meaning = The Lefthanded – the name given to Gaius Mucius, legendary hero of ancient Rome.

nominor = nomino (nomino, -are, -avi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 1st person, singular, present, passive, indicative, meaning = I am named.

et = conjunction, indeclinable, meaning = and.

reliquis = reliquus (reliquus, -a, -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, plural, masculine, ablative, modifies pedibus, meaning = remaining.

pedibus = pes (pes, pedis), noun, 3rd declension, plural, masculine, ablative, meaning = by means of (my) feet.

tribus = tres (tres, tria), adjective, 3rd declension, plural only, masculine, ablative, modifies pedibus, meaning = three.

ipsis = ipse (ipse, -a, -um), adjective, irregular (1st & 2nd declension-ish), plural, masculine, ablative, meaning = these very (an intensifier).

contra = preposition (with accusative), introduces hostes, meaning = against.

hostes = hostis (hostis, -is), noun, 3rd declension, plural, masculine, accusative, meaning = enemies.

Romae = Roma (Roma, -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, genitive, meaning = of Rome.

nunc = adverb, indeclinable, modifies supero, meaning = now.

etiam = adverb, indeclinable, modifies nunc, meaning = even.

supero = supero (supero, -are, -avi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 1st person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = I overcome.

Cattus = cattus (cattus, -i), noun, 2nd declension, singular, masculine, nominative, meaning = cat. (There’s wordplay here. Scaevola the Roman hero had the first name Gaius. The Romans abbreviated Gaius with the letter “C,” not “G.” So, Cattus here is used as a fictional Roman name, also fictionally abbreviated as “C.”)

Mucius = Mucius (Mucius, -ii), noun, 2nd declension, singular, masculine, nominative, meaning = the family name of the Roman hero Scaevola.

omnia = omnis (omnis, -e), adjective, 3rd declension, plural, neuter, accusative, modifies vestra, meaning = all.

pelliciam = pellicio (or perlicio) (pellicio, pellicere, pellicui, pellectus), verb, 3rd conjugation, 1st person, singular, future, active, indicative, meaning = I will win over.

pectora = pectus (pectus, -oris), noun, 3rd declension, plural, neuter, accusative, meaning = literally: breasts, figuratively: hearts. In Latin, the seat of emotional love was “pectus,” while the Latin word for “heart” meant the literal organ.

vestra = vester (vester, vestra, -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension plural, neuter, accusative, modifies pectora, meaning = a possessive adjective for the 2nd person plural pronoun – of yours (you = plural).

mihi = ego (ego …), pronoun, irregular, 1st person, singular, dative, meaning = to me.


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#5)


The Thought

Dormitat servus meus, ast crater eget escā.

Forsitan excitet ut dente pedem capio…


The Meaning

My servant repeatedly sleeps, but the bowl needs food.

Perhaps he may awake as I seize (his) foot with (my) tooth.

(Yes, he does this. It’s gentle and funny, but he does this.)


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Dōrmī/tāt sēr/vūs mĕŭs, / āst crā/tēr ĕgĕt / ēscā.
(ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘)

Fōrsĭtăn / ēxcĭtĕt / ūt || dēntĕ pĕd/ēm căpĭ/ō…
(ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ)


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Dormitat = dormito (dormito, -āre, -āvi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = he (servus) repeatedly sleeps.

servus = servus (servus -i), noun, 2nd declension, singular, masculine, nominative, meaning = male servant.

meus = meus (meus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, feminine, nominative, modifies servus, meaning = my.

ast = conjunction, indeclinable, meaning = but.

crater = crater (crater, -eris), noun, 3rd declension, singular, neuter, nominative, meaning = bowl.

eget = egeo (egeo, -ēre, -ui), verb, 2nd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = it (crater) is in need (need). (While English may sometimes use the genitive: “is in need *of*,” Latin uses the  ablative for verbs of needing, lacking, etc: “is in need *by means of*”)

escā = esca (esca, -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, ablative, meaning = (by means of) food.

Forsitan = adverb, indeclinable, modifies excitet, meaning = perhaps.

excitet = excito (excito, -āre, -āvi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, subjunctive, meaning = he (servus) may awake. (This form and use of the subjunctive conveys the idea of a potential action)

ut = conjunction (temporal), indeclinable, meaning = as (just as, at the same time as).

dens = dens (dens, dentis), noun, 3rd declension, singular, neuter, ablative, meaning = (by means of) tooth.

pedem = pes (pes, pedis), noun, 3rd declension, singular, masculine, accusative, meaning = foot.

capio = capio (capio, capere, cepi, captum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 1st person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = I seize.


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#4)


The Thought

Hanc sellam credit stulta esse suam mea serva.

Credat eas nugas, ast ea sella mea est.


The Meaning

My foolish maid believes that this chair is hers.

Let her believe this nonsense, but the chair is mine.


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Hānc sēl / lām crē / dīt stūl / ta-ēssĕ* sŭ / ām mĕă / sērvă.
(ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘)

Crēdăt ĕ / ās nū / gās, || āst ĕă / sēllă mĕ / a-ēst.
(ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ)

* A note on scansion: if a word ends in a vowel, am, em, or um, AND the next word begins with a vowel (or an h), then the ending vowel (or am, em, um) of the first word is dropped completely (beat value and all) and the two words are joined. This is known as elision.


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Hanc = hic (hic, haec, hoc), adjective, irregular (1st & 2nd declension-ish), singular, feminine, accusative, modifies sellam, meaning = this.

sellam = sella (sella -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, accusative, meaning = chair.

credit = credo (credo, -dere, -didi, -ditum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = she (serva) believes.

stulta = stultus (stultus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, feminine, nominative, modifies serva, meaning = foolish.

esse = sum (sum, esse, fui, futurum), verb, irregular, infinitive, present, active only, infinitive, meaning = to be. (This construction is called an indirect statement. In it, the infinitive acts as the verb, and the accusative acts as the subject. I.e.: she believes that the chair is… literally [note: we do the same thing in English], she believes the chair to be…)

suam = suus (suus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, feminine, accusative, modifies sellam, meaning = her own. (suus [his own, her own, its own] is used when referring to the subject, eius (is, ea, id [his, hers, its]) is used when referring to someone or something other than the subject).

mea = meus (meus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, feminine, nominative, modifies serva, meaning = my.

serva = serva (serva -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, nominative, meaning = female servant.

Credat = credo (credo, -dere, -didi, -ditum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, subjunctive, meaning = she (serva) may believe (let her believe). (This form and use of the subjunctive is known as the jussive subjunctive. It carries the weight of a command.)

eas = is (is, ea, id), adjective, irregular (1st & 2nd declension-ish), plural, feminine, accusative, modifies nugas, meaning = these. (Two notes here:
1) (is, ea, is) is translated as a generic, nondemonstrative “this.” It is the closest thing that Latin has to the definite article “the.” 2) nugas, the word that eas modifies, is plural in form but singular in translation. So, in this instance, the correct translation for eas would be “this.”)

nugas = nugae (nugae -arum),  noun, 1st declension, plural, feminine, accusative, meaning = nonsense. (As noted above, nugas is plural in form but singular in translation, it only exists in plural form. English has the similarly related plural noun “fancies” for “nonsense.”)

ast = conjunction, indeclinable, meaning = but.

ea = is (is, ea, id), adjective, irregular (1st & 2nd declension-ish), singular, feminine, nominative, modifies sella, meaning = this (the). (See note 1 above on (is, ea, id) and the definite article.)

sella = sella (sella -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, nominative, meaning = chair.

mea = meus (meus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, feminine, nominative, modifies sella, meaning = mine.

est = sum (sum, esse, fui, futurum), verb, irregular, 3rd person, singular, present, active only, indicative, meaning = it (sellam) is.


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#3)


The Thought

Serve, tributum est istud inutile vileque vere.

Istud substituas vivo aliquo atque novo.


The Meaning

Servant, that tribute of yours is truly worthless and cheap.

You may replace that with something living and fresh.


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Sērvĕ, trĭ / būtŭm-ēst* / īstŭd ĭn / ūtĭlĕ / vīlĕquĕ / vērē.
(ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ)

Īstūd / sūbstĭtŭ / ās || vīvō-ălĭ / quō-ātquĕ nŏ / vō.
(ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )

* A note on scansion: if a word ends in a vowel, am, em, or um, AND the next word begins with a vowel (or an h), then the ending vowel (or am, em, um) of the first word is dropped completely (beat value and all) and the two words are joined. This is known as elision.


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Serve = servus, noun, 2nd declension, singular, masculine, vocative (used when directly address someone), meaning = servant.

tributum = tributum, noun, 2nd declension, singular, neuter, nominative (subject), meaning = tribute.

est = sum (sum, esse, fui, futurum), verb, irregular, 3rd person, singular, present, active only, indicative, meaning = it is.

istud = iste (iste, ista, istud), adjective, irregular (1st & 2nd declension-ish), neuter, nominative, modifies tributum, meaning = that (iste has a negative connotation, often translated as “such” or “that of yours,” e.g. “such a x” or “that x of yours.”)

inutile = inutilis (inutilis, inutile), adjective, 3rd declension, singular, neuter, nominative, modifies tributum, meaning = useless.

vile = vilis (vilis, vile), adjective, 3rd declension, singular, neuter, nominative, modifies tributum, meaning = cheap.

que = conjunction, indeclinable, added to the second of two similar words to be joined, meaning = and.

vere = adverb, indeclinable, modifies est, meaning = truly.

Istud = see istud above. However the case is accusative (direct object)(The nominative and accusative forms are always the same for neuter nouns). Still referring to tributum.

substituas = substituo (substituo, -uere, -ui, -utum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 2nd person, singular, present, active, subjunctive, meaning = you may replace (this form and use of the subjunctive is known as the jussive subjunctive. It carries the weight of a command.)

vivo = vivus (vivus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, neuter, ablative, modifies aliquo, meaning = living.

aliquo = aliquis (aliquis, aliqua, aliquid), adjective (used as a noun) , irregular (1st & 2nd declension-ish), neuter, ablative, meaning = by means of (with) something.

atque = conjunction, indeclinable, meaning = and. (Usually used before a word beginning with a vowel, and its other form “ac” usually used before a word beginning with a consonant. However, this is Latin poetry, and they bent the rules a bit for the sake of keeping the meter.)

novo = novus (novus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, neuter, ablative, modifies aliquo, meaning = new (i.e. fresh).


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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Scaevola’s Cat Thought of the Week* (#2)


The Thought

Desine, serve, librorum nugas stulte tuas nunc.

Tē dare nunc studium fas bene, serve, mihī.


The Meaning

Stop now your nonsense of books, foolish servant.

It is well right and just that you now, servant, pay attention to me.


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

Dēsĭnĕ, / sērvĕ, lĭ / brōrūm  / nūgās / stūltĕ tŭ / ās nūnc.
( ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ )

Tē dărĕ / nūnc stŭdĭ / ūm || fās bĕnĕ, / sērvĕ, mĭ / hī.
( ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Desine = desino (desino, -sinere, -sii, -situm), verb, 3rd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, imperative, meaning = stop.

serve = servus (servus -i), noun, 2nd declension, singular, masculine, vocative (direct address), meaning = male servant.

librorum = liber (liber, -bri), noun, 2nd declension, plural, masculine, genitive (with nugas), meaning = of books.

nugas = nugae (nugae -arum), noun, 1st declension, plural, feminine, accusative, meaning = nonsense. (As noted above, nugas is plural in form but singular in translation, it only exists in plural form. English has the similarly related plural noun “fancies” for “nonsense.”).

stulte = stultus (stultus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, masculine, vocative, modifies serve, meaning = foolish.

tuas =  tuus (tuus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, plural, feminine, accusative, modifies nugas, meaning = your.

nunc = adverb, indeclinable, modifies dare, meaning = now.

Tē = tu = tu (tu …), pronoun, irregular, 2nd person, singular, accusative (subject of dare [indirect statement]), meaning = you.

dare = do (do, dare, dedi, datum), verb, irregular (mostly 1st conjugation-ish), present, active, infinitive, meaning = to give. (The construction, “Fas [est] … te dare” is an indirect statement – “It is right… *that* you give.” In an indirect statement, the “that” is understood, the subject is in the accusative case, and the verb is in the infinitive. The same literal construction conveys roughly the same meaning in English – “It is right… [for] you to give.” The indirect statement construction is used whenever it would be used in English: I heard that…, I read that…, I understood that…, It is right that… etc.)

studium = studium (studium, -ii), noun, 2nd declension, singular, neuter, accusative (direct object of dare [indirect statement]), meaning = pursuit, interest.

fas = fas, noun, indeclinable, neuter, meaning = divine law (an “est” – “it is” – is understood here).

bene = adverb, indeclinable, modifies fas (est), meaning = well.

mihī = ego (ego …), pronoun, irregular, 1st person, singular, dative, meaning = to me.


*  “Week” is a used here as to specify an undefined length of time, possibly at times equal to an actual week.

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A Roman Cat

After the recent passing of Bastet my ancient cat of 18 years, my wife and I noticed that the house was really empty. So, she started searching the cat adoption boards.

She asked if I had any preferences. I told her to choose a sad cat that nobody else wants.

She found a Black & White American Short Hair (Tuxedo) – a feral who was rescued when it was found with its front right leg crushed (eventually fully amputated), and who can be aggressive when overstimulated. I’ve had a cat who also had the overstimulation issue, so it wasn’t a big deal to me.

On this past Saturday, we adopted him.

The place that rescued him named him Ringo. That’s a fine name, but then I remembered someone from Roman history – C. (Gaius) Mucius Scaevola.

In the early days of Rome, they were at war with the Etruscans. Gaius Mucius, a young soldier, went to the elders and pitched a plan: send him in at night to infiltrate the Etruscan camps and assassinate their king. The elders approved. However, Gaius Mucius failed in his attempt and was captured. Brought before the king to stand trial, Gaius Mucius told the king that Rome had 300 other assassins waiting to step up and finish the job. He then placed his right hand into a nearby flame, and as his hand was burning swore that Rome did not fear him and would defeat him.

The Etruscan king sent Gaius Mucius back to Rome alive, and then sued for peace.

The Romans made Gaius Mucius a hero and gave him the nickname Scaevola (the left-handed).

And so, as Ringo settles in (he already has), he will notice that his human servants will start calling him “Sky” rather than “Ringo.”
Sky, or more formally C. (Cattus) Mucius Scaevola.

There is a Latin group here on Ratburger, S.P.Q.Ratburger. It has a lot of traffic from people here who want to learn Latin or discuss things about it. But, as Dime has found, there’s so much traffic that specific topics can get lost in the shuffle. So Dime, wisely, has started posting separate topics about Latin. And I will do the same.

Now that I have my cat Sky, I thought it would be fun to give Sky a Latin language page on Twitter and post a weekly* “Cat Thought” in Latin. (*Weekly = I’ll try for weekly, but really when I get to it).

And I have Sky’s first Cogitatum Catti (Cat Thought), and that thought is in the form of Latin verse.

One of the most famous Roman poets was Martial. Imagine if Henny Youngman was a poet and spoke Latin. Martial was famous for his comic (often insulting) two-line verses. A lot of them translate well to today’s humor – they’re actually funny.

Martial’s two line form was known as the Elegiac Couplet. I won’t go into too much detail as it’s kind of advanced Latin. If you’re interested in more info, then Google is your friend.

The poem, an original by me, is presented here, then the mark up for scansion (poetic analysis of meter), and then the translation.



The Thought

“Dē mensā descende!” mihi acclamat mea serva.

At quā rē posuit serva cibos mea ibī?


The Meaning

“Get down from the table!” my servant girl yells at me.

But why did my servant girl put food there?


The Form

ˉ = Full beat
˘ = Half beat
° = Either a full or half beat may be used
ˉ ˘ ˘ = D = Dactyl (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˉ = S = Spondee (a metrical foot)
ˉ ˘ = T = Trochee (a metrical foot)
/ = Separator between metrical feet
|| = A hiatus – a pronounced pause
X = Either a dactyl or spondee may be used
Y = Either a spondee or a trochee may be used

Form = Elegiac Couplet
X / X / X / X / D / Y
X / X / ° || D / D / ˉ


The Scansion

“Dē mēn/sā dēs/cēndĕ!” mĭ/hi*-ācclā/māt mĕă / sērvå.
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˉ )

Āt quā / rē pŏsŭ/īt || sērvă cĭ/bōs mĕa-ĭb/ī?
( ˉ ˉ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ || ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ ˘ ˘ / ˉ )

* A note on scansion: if a word ends in a vowel, am, em, or um, AND the next word begins with a vowel (or an h), then the ending vowel (or am, em, um) of the first word is dropped completely (beat value and all) and the two words are joined. This is known as elision.


The Recitation


The Vocabulary and Grammar

Dē = preposition, indeclinable, modifies mensā, meaning = down from.

mensā = mensa (mensa, -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, ablative, meaning = table.

descende = descendo (descendo, -endere, -endi, -ensum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, imperative, meaning = get down.

mihi = ego (ego …), pronoun, irregular, 1st person, singular, dative, meaning = to me.

acclamat = acclamo (acclamo, -āre, -āvi, -atum), verb, 1st conjugation, 3rd person, singular, present, active, indicative, meaning = she (serva) yells.

mea = meus (meus -a -um), adjective, 1st & 2nd declension, singular, feminine, nominative, modifies serva, meaning = my.

serva = serva (serva -ae), noun, 1st declension, singular, feminine, nominative, meaning = female servant.

At = conjunction, indeclinable, meaning = but.

quā = quī (quī, quae, quod), adjective, irregular, (1st & 2nd and 3rd declension-ish), feminine, ablative, modifies rē, meaning = (interrogatory)(by means of) what

rē = res (res, rei) noun, 5th declension, singular, feminine, ablative, meaning = (by means of) reason – 2nd part of idiom “quā rē”

quā rē = quārē = interrogative, indeclinable, meaning = why

posuit = pono (pono, ponere, posui, positum), verb, 3rd conjugation, 3rd person, singular, perfect, active, indicative, meaning = she (serva) placed.

cibos = cibus (cibus, -i), noun, 2nd declension, plural, masculine, accusative, meaning = foods (food).

ibī = adverb, indeclinable, modifies posuit, meaning = there


The cat thought of the week*.
Enjoy, or not.

BTW – the picture of Sky on the table is from this morning. He looks totally busted.

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Christ the Lord is Risen

“Christ the Lord is Risen Today,” by Charles Wesley

1 Christ the Lord is risen today, Alleluia!
Earth and heaven in chorus say, Alleluia!
Raise your joys and triumphs high, Alleluia!
Sing, ye heavens, and earth reply, Alleluia!

2 Love’s redeeming work is done, Alleluia!
Fought the fight, the battle won, Alleluia!
Death in vain forbids him rise, Alleluia!
Christ has opened paradise, Alleluia!

3 Lives again our glorious King, Alleluia!
Where, O death, is now thy sting? Alleluia!
Once he died our souls to save, Alleluia!
Where’s thy victory, boasting grave? Alleluia!

4 Soar we now where Christ has led, Alleluia!
Following our exalted Head, Alleluia!
Made like him, like him we rise, Alleluia!
Ours the cross, the grave, the skies, Alleluia!

5 Hail the Lord of earth and heaven, Alleluia!
Praise to thee by both be given, Alleluia!
Thee we greet triumphant now, Alleluia!
Hail the Resurrection, thou, Alleluia!

6 King of glory, soul of bliss, Alleluia!
Everlasting life is this, Alleluia!
Thee to know, thy power to prove, Alleluia!
Thus to sing, and thus to love, Alleluia!

 

I picked this because Christianity Today said that as near as they can tell it is the most popular Easter hymn in America.

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Stricken, Smitten and Afflicted

Stricken, smitten, and afflicted,
see him dying on the tree!
‘Tis the Christ by man rejected;
yes, my soul, ’tis he, ’tis he!
‘Tis the long-expected Prophet,
David’s Son, yet David’s Lord;
by His Son God now has spoken:
’tis the true and faithful Word.

Tell me, ye who hear him groaning,
was there ever grief like His?
Friends through fear His cause disowning,
foes insulting His distress;
many hands were raised to wound Him,
none would interpose to save;
but the deepest stroke that pierced Him
was the stroke that Justice gave.

Ye who think of sin but lightly
nor suppose the evil great
here may view its nature rightly,
here its guilt may estimate.
Mark the sacrifice appointed,
see who bears the awful load;
’tis the Word, the Lord’s Anointed,
Son of Man and Son of God.

Here we have a firm foundation,
here the refuge of the lost;
Christ the Rock of our salvation,
His the name of which we boast.
Lamb of God, for sinners wounded,
sacrifice to cancel guilt!
None shall ever be confounded
who on him their hope have built.

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Built on the Rock

Here is a poem for your consideration as we celebrate Holy Week in the midst of sadness over the great damage to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. This poem does not come from a post-Christian, unbelieving viewpoint, teetering on the edge of depression. I spared you my comments on those poems. Instead I have a different poem to offer. This is a manly poem, encouraging us to pick ourselves up, brush ourselves off, and start all over again, striding out with confidence in the approaching bright Easter Day.

Built on the Rock, the church shall stand
even when steeples are falling;
Crumbled have spires in ev’ry land;
bells still are chiming and calling.
Calling the young and old to rest,
calling the souls of those distressed,
longing for life everlasting.

Not in a temple made with hands
God the Almighty is dwelling;
high in the heav’ns His temple stands,
all earthly temples excelling.
Yet He who dwells in heaven above
chooses to live with us in love,
making our bodies His temple.

We are God’s house of living stones,
built for His own habitation;
He fills our hearts, His humble thrones,
granting us life and salvation.
Yet to the place, an earthly frame,
we come with thanks to praise His name;
God grants His people true blessing.

Thro’ all the passing years, O Lord,
grant that, when church bells are ringing,
many may come to hear God’s Word
where He His promise is bringing:
“I know My own, My own know Me,
you, not the world, My face shall see;
My peace I leave with you. Amen.”

The author was Nikolai Fredrik Severin Grundtvig. It was translated from Danish by Carl Döving.

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Today Poem: Loveliest of Trees

Inspired by Dime’s tree posts, I thought this appropriate. It is not Kipling, but Houseman is another favorite of mine. This is one of his few cheerful poems and about the only one by him I saw in my middle school English texts. (Those were typically filled with dreadful stuff by Emily Dickinson.) When I was in college, I discovered A Shropshire Lad, in which this poem appeared, and which had lots of other gloriously mordant verses.

LOVELIEST of trees, the cherry now
Is hung with bloom along the bough,
And stands about the woodland ride
Wearing white for Eastertide.

Now, of my threescore years and ten,
Twenty will not come again,
And take from seventy springs a score,
It only leaves me fifty more.

And since to look at things in bloom
Fifty springs are little room,
About the woodlands I will go
To see the cherry hung with snow.

A. E. Houseman

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Labors in the Afternoon

Labors in the Afternoon

The height of a Man’s Labor comes in the Afternoon.
Morning’s running gait gives way
to the slow, sure steps of diligence.
He wipes his brow, feeling the waning sun,
its waxing heat, and brilliant light.
Morning’s promises are burned away
forging what tasks remain, chosen and unchosen.
Stooping and sighing, (while no one is looking), his eyes
gaze West, and he feels the Truth of Evening:
Many tasks of Morning will go unfinished ere the failing of the light.
Standing straight, he lays aside tools unneeded and
takes ones not touched since sunrise.
In the Afternoon, he will do what can be done,
accepting Wisdoms not seen in the Dawn.
His chores are not less; he will yet sweat and strain.
But a song escapes his lips, and he feels alive again,
as he Labors in the Afternoon.

 

Bryan G. Stephens 2015

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To Love is to Wait

The stages of development of spousal love are described in our literature, sometimes one stage at a time, sometimes in consideration of all the stages.

Andrew Klavan, who does not join us here and is therefore ultimately foolish, made in a recent podcast a wise recommendation on this subject. He recommended the poem Wordsworth wrote about his own spouse: She was a phantom of delight. It recounts the progression of the poet’s understanding of his lady, from initial sensory impact, to appreciation of manners, ultimately to respect for her transcendent humanity: a Being breathing thoughtful breath.

In a similar vein is a poem that starts off Love is waiting  . . .  

It does not mean Love is waiting for you,  or any such stuff.  It means that loving constitutes waiting.  Look; you will see.

Miłość

Jest czekaniem
na niebieski mrok
na zieloność traw
na piesczczotę rzęs.

Love

Is waiting
for the blue dusk
for the green grass
for the embrace of eyelids.

(As the Italians say:  amore fulmineo!  thunderbolt love!)

But we continue:

Czekaniem
na kroki

szelesty
listy
na pukanie do drzwi

Waiting
for footsteps
rustling
letters
for the knock on the door

Czekaniem
na sełnienie

trwanie
zrozumienie

Waiting
for fulfillment
constancy
understanding

Czekaniem
na potwierdzenie

na kryzk protestu

Waiting
for confirmation
for cry of protest

(Mutual trust gives us the freedom to be mutually, and non-fatally, candid.)

Czekaniem
na sen
na świt
na koniec świata

Waiting
for sleep
for dawn
for the end of the world

(And so we can be constant through the life we are given.)

The poet is Małgorzata Hillar (1930-1995.)  The translator is Morosław Lipiński. My editorial interruptions are in parentheses. Nice clean layout is here or here.

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