On August 30th, 2019, Gennady Borisov, an optician and astronomer at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, using equipment he built himself, discovered a dim (18th magnitude) object moving with respect to the distant stars. Further observations indicated it was cometary in appearance, with a coma around its brightest spot and apparent short tail. Orbital computations from the limited number of observations indicate that it was discovered at a distance of around 3 astronomical units (AU) (the mean radius of the Earth’s orbit) from the Sun, inbound toward a perihelion on December 10th near 2 AU.
As with ’Oumuamua (1I/2017 U1) in 2017, attempts to fit a typical elliptical or parabolic orbit to the observations failed, and the best fit was found to be a hyperbolic orbit with an eccentricity in excess of 3. Such an object is not gravitationally bound to the solar system and must be of interstellar origin; after rounding the Sun, it will depart into interstellar space never to be seen again. This is only the second such object to be observed. From observations so far (and with less than two weeks of data, these figures will be revised as further observations are made), its inbound velocity to the solar system before it began to be accelerated by the Sun’s gravity was around 30 km/sec, which rules out a hyperbolic orbit due to interactions with solar system objects, as such perturbations cannot create a velocity greater than 3 km/sec. Here is the Minor Planet Center Circular, MPEC 2019-R106, announcing the discovery, its apparent interstellar nature, and preliminary orbital elements based on the news that’s come to Harvard.... [Read More]
On November 11th, 2019, between 12:35 and 18:04 universal time (UTC), Mercury, the innermost planet, will pass in front of the Sun as seen from Earth: an astronomical spectacle called a “planetary transit”. Planetary transits visible from Earth are relatively rare events: only the inner planets Mercury and Venus can ever pass between the Sun and Earth, and they are only seen to cross its disc when the plane of the planet’s orbit intersects the plane of the Earth’s orbit (the ecliptic) close to the time when the planet is at inferior conjunction with the Sun. On most inferior conjunctions, the orbital planes do not align (or, in other words, are not close to a node crossing) and the planet “misses” the Sun, passing above or below it as seen from Earth.
Mercury’s orbit crosses the ecliptic around May 8 and November 11 at the present epoch, and so transits always occur within a few days of those dates. The most recent transit of Mercury was on May 9th, 2016 (when, despite being clouded out for most of the event, I managed to briefly observe and photograph it through thin clouds), and the next transit will not occur until November 13th, 2032, so if you miss this one, you’ll have a thirteen year wait until the next opportunity.... [Read More]
Here is a link to something I have never seen before. I found it on rt.com, which I peruse most days in an effort to divine what is really going on in the world. This link adumbrates a solar eclipse in stunning fashion. Enjoy!
A total solar eclipse will take place today, 2019-07-02. Totality will be visible only in the southern hemisphere, on a path seemingly crafted to avoid land as much as possible. Totality will touch down in the southwest Pacific Ocean, pass over Pitcairn Island, then finally touch land, crossing Chile and Argentina. Totality will begin at 18:03 UTC and end at 20:42 UTC.
A total eclipse of the Sun occurred in August,2017. Observers gathered images and manipulated them digitally. In consequence we see the solar corona like never before. There, that is everything I know about astronomy with respect to this image, said image being presented today as NASA’s “Astronomy Picture of the Day.” I just did want you all not to miss it. Maybe somebody will comment!
The Kepler spacecraft was launched into heliocentric orbit in 2009. Its primary mission was to stare at a small area of the sky and monitor around 150,000 stars in its field of view (around twice the size of the bowl of the Big Dipper), watching for the subtle dimming of stars when planets orbiting them passed in front of their parent stars (a transit). Before its retirement in October, 2018, it had discovered 2,662 exoplanets (planets orbiting stars other than the Sun). It also saw some other, very curious things.
In May, 1900, British magician Nevil Maskelyne, Jr., travelled to North Carolina in the United States to observe and attempt to photograph the total eclipse of the Sun on May 28th of that year. Maskelyne was the son of John Nevil Maskelyne, a celebrated magician who was also the inventor of the pay toilet. (Neither should be confused with the unrelated Rev. Dr Nevil Maskelyne, the fifth British Astronomer Royal from 1765 to 1811.) Solar eclipses had been photographed before, with the first completely successful photograph taken of the eclipse of 1851-07-28, but Maskelyne wanted to take the next step and make a motion picture of the eclipse. He used a camera with a telescopic adapter developed by his father, which he had previously attempted to use to photograph the eclipse of 1898-01-22, but his film was stolen during the return to Britain so we’ll never know what it contained.
The film from the 1900 eclipse was stunning. I have photographed four total solar eclipses (1999, 2001, 2008, and 2010), and even with modern equipment, dealing with the rapid and dramatic changes in light level in the seconds before and after totality is very challenging. However Maskelyne managed to do it (nothing is known about his equipment or technique), the result was a total success, which was shown in British theatres. The film disappeared shortly after its theatrical presentation and was believed to have been lost for over a century. In 2018, a copy (it is unknown whether this was the original or a print) was found in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society, whose curator did not know what it was, and upon consultation with the British Film Institute’s (BFI) curator of silent films, it was identified as the Maskelyne eclipse film. The BFI’s conservators re-photographed the original celluloid film onto 35 millimetre film, which was then digitally scanned and restored as a 4K video. Here is the restored film. It is embedded here as a smaller video: click on “Watch on YouTube” to watch in full resolution.... [Read More]
During the recent lunar eclipse (the date on which it occurred depends upon your time zone: mid-eclipse was at 05:12 UTC on 2019-01-21, while the eclipse occurred on the evening of January 20th in western hemisphere time zones) several amateur astronomers capturing the eclipse on video observed a flash of light, just a single video frame, near the limb of the eclipsed Moon just at the beginning of the umbral phase.
The fact that three observers in different locations have so far reported the same flash excludes other explanations such as a reflection off an Earth satellite or a “point meteor” burning up in the Earth’s atmosphere on a trajectory pointed directly at the observer.... [Read More]
Tonight (August 12–13, 2018 UTC) the Perseid meteor shower will peak. This meteor shower occurs every year around August 12th as the Earth passes through the orbit of debris from comet Swift-Tuttle. This is one of the most reliable and intense meteor showers and, in ideal conditions (clear, dark sky and dark-adapted eyes) you may see a meteor a minute. (As with everything, Pareto is on the job—there are many more dim meteors than bright ones.)... [Read More]
Ever since the time of Galileo, the history of astronomy has been punctuated by a series of “great debates”—disputes between competing theories of the organisation of the universe which observation and experiment using available technology are not yet able to resolve one way or another. In Galileo’s time, the great debate was between the Ptolemaic model, which placed the Earth at the centre of the solar system (and universe) and the competing Copernican model which had the planets all revolving around the Sun. Both models worked about as well in predicting astronomical phenomena such as eclipses and the motion of planets, and no observation made so far had been able to distinguish them.
Then, in 1610, Galileo turned his primitive telescope to the sky and observed the bright planets Venus and Jupiter. He found Venus to exhibit phases, just like the Moon, which changed over time. This would not happen in the Ptolemaic system, but is precisely what would be expected in the Copernican model—where Venus circled the Sun in an orbit inside that of Earth. Turning to Jupiter, he found it to be surrounded by four bright satellites (now called the Galilean moons) which orbited the giant planet. This further falsified Ptolemy’s model, in which the Earth was the sole source of attraction around which all celestial bodies revolved. Since anybody could build their own telescope and confirm these observations, this effectively resolved the first great debate in favour of the Copernican heliocentric model, although some hold-outs in positions of authority resisted its dethroning of the Earth as the centre of the universe.... [Read More]
On the night of July 27, 2017 (as reckoned in Universal Time, as we use at Ratburger.org), the longest total lunar eclipse of the 21st century occurred. As I am writing this, the total eclipse is just about to end. The eclipse is not visible in the Western Hemisphere.
The March equinox occurs this year at 16:15 UTC on March 20. This is the moment when the subsolar point crosses the equator headed north. The line of day and night as seen on a map as above (produced by Earth and Moon Viewer using NASA imagery with snow and ice cover representative of March) is vertical, indicating that day and night are of equal duration everywhere on Earth. The terminator (day/night line, not killer robots from the future) appears to curve near the poles because of the projection of the spherical Earth onto a flat map. Here is a view of the Earth above the terminator at the moment of equinox.